Preview

Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia

Advanced search
Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

A Yakut Composite Bow from the Toybokhoy Museum

https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2020.48.3.099-106

Full Text:

Abstract

We give the fi rst description of an unusual composite bow of the Central Asian type, owned by the Toybokhoy Museum in the Suntarsky District of Yakutia, and provide information about its discovery. We foc us on the details and structural peculiarities of the specimen, and note that this refl ex composite bow differs in terms of construction and technology from those of the Northe rn type used by the Yakuts in the 17th to 19th centuries. It resembles bows of the Central Asian type. Its distinctive features are eight horn and bone frontal plates, four end-plates, and four long edging-plates made of bone. According to folkloric sources and 17th century archival documents, before the Russians migrated to the Lena Territory, the Yakuts had used bone combat bows of the Central Asian type. We cite an archaeological fact demonstrating the use of such bows in Yakutia—a central plate from a composite bow with widening paddle-shaped ends from the mid-15th to early 16th century burial at Sergelyakh. We publish the results of the radiocarbon analysis of the horn plate from the Toybokhoy bow, carried out at the Center for Isotope Research at the University of Groningen. They support the legendary version: the Toybokhoy bow belonged to the brother of the Yakut ruler Tygyn Darkhan, Ala Kyrsyn, who lived in the early 17th century and became the founder of one of the Vilyuy Yakut clans. We conclude that alongside the Northern type bows, the late medieval Yakuts used refl ex bows of the Central Asian type.

About the Authors

R. I. Bravina
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Chief Researcher

Petrovskogo 1, Yakutsk, 677027



V. M. Dyakonov
Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Senior Researcher

Petrovskogo 1, Yakutsk, 677027



References

1. Apresov S. 2008 Nauka lukovaya: Anatomiya klassicheskogo derevyannogo luka. Populyarnaya mekhanika. URL: http://www.popmech.ru/technologies/7758-nauka-lukovaya-anatomiya-klassicheskogoderevyannogo-luka (Accessed February 24, 2020).

2. Bravina R.I., Dyakonov V.M., Nikolaev E.N., Petrov D.M., Syrovatsky V.V., Bagashev A.N., Razhev D.I., Poshekhonova O.E., Slepchenko S.M., Alekseeva E.A., Zubova A.V., Kuzmin Y.V. 2016 Kompleksnoye issledovaniye ranneyakutskogo Sergelyakhskogo pogrebeniya serediny XV – nachala XVI v. Vestnik arkheologii, antropologii i etnografi i, No. 4 (35): 90–109.

3. Ermolov L.V. 1987 Slozhnosostavnoy mongolskiy luk. In Koreiskiye i mongolskiye kollektsii v sobraniyakh MAE. Leningrad: Nauka, pp. 149–155. (Sbornik MAE; vol. 41).

4. Gogolev A.I. 1990 Arkheologicheskiye pamyatniki Yakutii pozdnego srednevekovya (XIV–XVIII vv.). Irkutsk: Izd. Irkutsk. Gos. Univ.

5. Hudiakov Y.S. 1991 Vooruzheniye tsentralnoaziatskikh kochevnikov v epokhu rannego i razvitogo srednevekovya. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

6. Hudiakov Y.S. 1997 Vooruzheniye kochevnikov Yuzhnoy Sibiri i Tsentralnoy Azii v epokhu razvitogo srednevekovya. Novosibirsk: Izd. IAET SO RAN.

7. Ivanov V.N. 1966 Kuznechnoye delo u yakutov XVII v. Yakutskiy arkhiv, iss. 3: 64–76.

8. Klyashtorny S.G., Savinov D.G. 2005 Stepniye imperii drevney Yevrazii. St. Petersburg: Filol. fak. SPb. Gos. Univ. (Istoricheskiye issledovaniya).

9. Konstantinov I.V. 1971 Materialnaya kultura yakutov XVIII veka (po materialam pogrebeniy). Yakutsk: Yakutknigoizdat.

10. Ksenofontov G.V. 1977 Elleyada. Materialy po mifologii i legendarnoy istorii yakutov. Moscow: Nauka.

11. Ksenofontov G.V. 1992 Uraanghai-sakhalar. Ocherki po drevney istorii yakutov, vol. 1, bk. 2. Yakutsk: Nat. Izd. Respubliki Sakha (Yakutiya).

12. McEwen E., Miller R.L., Bergman C.A. 1991 Early bow design and construction. Scientifi c American, vol. 264: 76–82.

13. Nefedov S.A. 2010 Istoriya Rossii: Faktorniy analiz. In 2 vols. Vol. 1: S drevneishikh vremen do Velikoy Smuty. Moscow: Territoriya budushchego. (Universitetskaya biblioteka Aleksandra Pogorelskogo).

14. Nikolaev V.S. 2004 Pogrebalniye kompleksy kochevnikov yuga Sredney Sibiri v XII–XIV vv.: Ust-talkinskaya kultura. Vladivostok, Irkutsk: Izd. Inst. geografi i SO RAN.

15. Okladnikov A.P. 1955 Istoriya Yakutskoy ASSR. Vol. 1. Moscow, Leningrad: Izd. AN SSSR.

16. Petrov D.M. 2017 Osvoyeniye basseyna reki Vilyuy yakutskimi rodami v XVI– XVIII vv. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, No. 414: 98–102.

17. Simchenko Y.B. 1976 Kultura okhotnikov na oleney Severnoy Yevrazii: Etnografi cheskaya rekonstruktsiya. Moscow: Nauka.

18. Skobelev S.G., Mitko O.A. 2001 Luki lesnogo naseleniya srednego Yeniseya v pozdnem srednevekovye. In Voprosy voyennogo dela i demografi i Sibiri v epokhu srednevekovya. Novosibirsk: Izd. Novosib. Gos. Univ., pp. 96–102.

19. Strelov E.D. 1927 Luk, strely i kopyo drevnego yakuta (Materialy po arkheologii yakutov). In Sbornik tr. issled. ob-va “Sakha Keskile”, iss. 1. Yakutsk: [s.n.], pp. 58–74.

20. Tokarev S.A. 1945 Obshchestvenniy stroy yakutov XVII–XVIII vv. Yakutsk: Kn. izd.

21. Vasiliev F.F. 1995 Voyennoye delo yakutov. Yakutsk: Bichik.


For citation:


Bravina R.I., Dyakonov V.M. A Yakut Composite Bow from the Toybokhoy Museum. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2020;48(3):99-106. https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2020.48.3.099-106

Views: 20


ISSN 1563-0110 (Print)