Preview

Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia

Advanced search
Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Karakalpak Family Ritualism: The Bes Kiyim Custom in the Transformation of Traditional Culture

https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2020.48.3.124-133

Full Text:

Abstract

This study describes the bridal and funerary rite of exchanging clothes (Bes Kiyim – ‘Five Costumes’) in the context of the traditions and innovations in the Karakalpak culture. On the basis of fi eld data collected in 2014–2019 and earlier in places with a continuous or patchy distribution of the Karakalpak population (Chimbaysky, Karauzyaksky, Kegeyliysky, Nukussky, Khodzheyliysky, and the Takhiatashsky districts of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Republic of Uzbekistan) and of earlier sources, changes in ritualism are analyzed. Bridal rites include exchanges of gifts, such as items of clothing. The comparison of sources shows that the Bes Kiyim rite originated in the mid-20th century in the context of socio-cultural changes. It has remained rather stable up to the present time, being an integral part of Karakalpak bridal ritualism. This indicates its importance in the normative culture of that ethnic group. In one district of Karakalpakstan, the term Bes Kiyim was transferred from the bridal to the funerary rituals. The origin of the rite relates to the transformation of the Iyis custom—the distribution of the deceased person’s clothing among those participating in the ablution of the body. In the late 20th century, specially purchased items of clothing began to be used for that purpose. Apparently, the fi ve items distributed among those participating in the rite symbolize the deceased person’s transition to the ancestors’ world. By the same token, the bride’s fi ve outfi ts allude to her passage to the category of married women and the beginning of her marital life. Therefore, the ritual innovations of the Karakalpaks, caused by socio-cultural and economic changes, mirror the logic and content of traditional family festivals whose complex symbolism relates to status change.

About the Author

Z. I. Kurbanova
Karakalpak Research Institute of the Humanities, Karakalpak Branch, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan
Russian Federation

Department Head

Amir Timur 179 A, Nukus, 230100, Republic of Karakalpakstan



References

1. Bekmuratova A.T. 1969 Byt i semya karakalpakov v proshlom i nastoyashchem. Nukus: Karakalpakstan.

2. Esbergenov K. 1963a K voprosu ob izzhivanii religioznykh predstavleniy i obryadov u karakalpakov (na materiale pogrebalnoi obryadnosti). Cand. Sc. (History) Dissertation. Moscow.

3. Esbergenov K. 1963b K voprosu o borbe s perezhitkami ustarevshikh obychaev i obryadov (Karakalpakskie pominki as). Sovetskaya etnografi ya, No. 5: 32–45.

4. Esbergenov K. 1964 Qaraqalpaqlardyn geipara dasturleri haqqynda. Nukus: Karakalpakstan.

5. Esbergenov K., Atamuratov T. 1975 Traditsii i ikh preobrazovanie v gorodskom bytu karakalpakov. Nukus: Karakalpakstan.

6. Kamalov S. 1959 Perezhitki islama i traditsii starogo byta u karakalpakov. In Materialy vtorogo soveshchaniya arkheologov i etnografov Srednei Azii. Moscow, Leningrad: Izd. AN SSSR, pp. 122–127.

7. Kamalova R.S. 1996 Sotsialno-nravstvennye aspekty v traditsionnoi svadbe karakalpakov. Vestnik KKO AN RUz, No. 2: 89–94.

8. Karakalpaki. 1962 Narody Srednei Azii i Kazakhstana, S.P. Tolstov, T.A. Zhdanko, S.M. Abramzon, N.A. Kislyakov (eds.), vol. I. Moscow: Nauka, pp. 408–528.

9. Qaraqalpaqstan XIX asirdin ekinshi yarymynan XXI asirge shekem. 2003 Nukus: Karakalpakstan.

10. Karmysheva B.K. 1986 Arkhaicheskaya simvolika v pogrebalno-pominalnoi obryadnosti uzbekov Fergany. In Drevnie obryady, verovaniya i kulty narodov Srednei Azii (istoriko-etnografi cheskie ocherki). Moscow: Nauka, pp. 139–181.

11. Kerlot K.E. 1994 Slovar simvolov. Moscow: REFL-book.

12. Kislyakov N.A. 1969 Ocherki po istorii semyi i braka u narodov Srednei Azii i Kazakhstana. Leningrad: Nauka.

13. Qunnazarov A. 2000 Zheti asyrym. Nukus: Karakalpakstan.

14. Kusekeev U. 1934 Etnografiya KKASSR. Turtkul. Rukopisnyi fond Fundamentalnoi biblioteki KKO AN RUz, inv. No. 932.

15. Leffl er E. 1913 Tsifry i tsifrovye sistemy kulturnykh narodov v drevnosti i v novoe vremya. Odessa: Tekhnik.

16. Tilewmuratov U. 2009 Omir otkelleri. Nukus: Karakalpakstan

17. Turekeev K. 2020 Rol magicheskikh predstavleniy v pokhoronnoi obryadnosti karakalpakov. O’zbekiston tarixi, No. 1: 64–67.

18. Yarlykapov A.A. 2008 Islam u stepnykh nogaitsev. Moscow: Nauka.

19. Zhdanko T.A. 1952 Karakalpaki Khorezmskogo oazisa. In Trudy Khorezmskoi arkheologo-etnografi cheskoi ekspeditsii, vol. I. Moscow Izd. AN SSSR, pp. 461–566.

20. Zhuraev M., Rasulova Z. 2014 Mif, marosim va ertak. Tashkent: Mumtoz so’z.


For citation:


Kurbanova Z.I. Karakalpak Family Ritualism: The Bes Kiyim Custom in the Transformation of Traditional Culture. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2020;48(3):124-133. https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2020.48.3.124-133

Views: 22


ISSN 1563-0110 (Print)