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Late Bronze Age Smelting and Processing Furnaces of the Eastern Variant of the Pakhomovskaya Culture in the Baraba Forest-Steppe

https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2020.48.1.061-071

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Abstract

We describe smelting furnaces found in southwestern Siberia, at the Tartas-1 ritual site, representing the eastern variant of the Pakhomovskaya culture. This is so far the only known site where the ritual complex, which includes post holes, and utility and ritual pits, adjoins a special manufacturing area with furnaces for smelting copper ore and processing bronze. The pits, differing in form, depth, and size, belonged to a structure. Furnaces are of two types: deep ones, dug into virgin soil, and shallow ones with domes. The former were destined for smelting ore, and the latter for processing metal. The construction of both types is described in detail. The smelting furnaces are peculiar and have no direct parallels in the Late Bronze Age settlements and sanctuaries of southwestern Siberia, while being somewhat similar to smelting furnaces of the Early Iron Age Itkul culture of the Trans-Urals. Furnaces of the second type resemble those of the local Late Irmen culture. Apparently, in the Baraba forest-steppe, where no copper ore outcrops are available, the ritual complexes included furnaces destined for both smelting ore and processing metal. The bronze metallurgy in the region may have been introduced by immigrants practicing both copper ore smelting and metal processing.

About the Authors

V. I. Molodin
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Department Head, Director Advisor.

Pr Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090



D. V. Selin
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Junior Researcher.

Pr Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090



L. M. Mylnikova
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk State University
Russian Federation

Leading Researcher IAE, SB, RAS; Teaching Assistant of the Archaeology and Ethnography Department, NSU.

Pr Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090; Pirogova I, Novosibirsk, 630090



I. A. Durakov
Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University
Russian Federation

Associate Professor.

Vilyuiskaya 28, Novosibirsk, 630126



N. S. Efremova
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Senior Researcher.

Pr Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090



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For citation:


Molodin V.I., Selin D.V., Mylnikova L.M., Durakov I.A., Efremova N.S. Late Bronze Age Smelting and Processing Furnaces of the Eastern Variant of the Pakhomovskaya Culture in the Baraba Forest-Steppe. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2020;48(1):61-71. https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2020.48.1.061-071

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