Preview

Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии

Расширенный поиск

ДОМЕСТИКАЦИЯ ЛОШАДИ В ЮГО-ЗАПАДНОЙ АЗИИ

Полный текст:

Аннотация

На основании представленной в статье сводки фаунистических данных прослеживается хронология распространения домашних лошадей из Евразийской степи в Юго-Западную Азию. В конце плейстоцена дикие лошади обитали на большей части территории Ближнего Востока, однако возрастающая аридизация климата привела к их исчезновению в данном регионе. Таким образом, присутствие скелетных остатков лошадей в материалах археологических памятников позднего голоцена предполагает распространение этих животных в качестве одомашненных. Ранние свидетельства их доместикации обнаружены в Ботае (Казахстан), однако популяции диких лошадей сохранялись в Анатолии, Иране и Южном Леванте в среднем голоцене. Если останки, найденные в этих регионах, не принадлежат диким предкам лошадей, то их присутствие на памятниках позднего энеолита указывает на то, что доместицированные лошади появились в Юго-Западной Азии гораздо раньше, чем принято считать. Древнейшие останки одомашненной лошади из Бухена (Египет) требуют особого объяснения, т.к. в Леванте подобные находки на памятниках того времени неизвестны. Однако лошади обитали в Леванте и тогда, и раньше, что свидетельствует о постепенном распространении доместицированных лошадей из евразийских степей на юг в течение двух тысячелетий, с конца энеолита до позднего бронзового века. Этому распространению, вероятно, способствовало появление и широкое использование боевых колесниц в начале II тыс. до н.э.

Об авторе

Ю. Т. Шев
Университет Ла Троб, Австралия La Trobe University Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, Australia
Австралия

докторант департамента археологии, окружающей среды и общественного планирования



Список литературы

1. Энеолит СССР / ред. В.М. Массон, Н.Я. Мерперт. – М.: Наука, 1982. – 360 с. – (Археология СССР).

2. Akkermans P.M.M.G., Schwartz G.M. The archaeology of Syria from complex hunter-gatherers to early urban society, ca. 16,000–300 BC. – Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003. – 485 p.

3. Alhaique F. Appendix A: faunal remains // Khirbet al-Batrawy II: The EB II city-gate, the EB II–III fortifications, the EB II–III temple: Preliminary report of the second (2006) and third (2007) seasons of excavations / ed. L. Nigro. – Rome, 2008. – P. 327–358. – (Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine & Transjordan; vol. 6).

4. Anthony D.W. The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. – Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2007. – 568 p.

5. Anthony D.W., Brown D.R. Looking a gift horse in the mouth: identifi cation of the earliest bitted equids and the microscopic analysis of wear // Early Animal Domestication and its Cultural Context / eds. P.J. Crabtree, D.V. Campana, K. Ryan. – Philadelphia: The Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology, 1989. – P. 99–116.

6. Anthony D.W., Brown D.R. The origin of horseback riding // Antiquity. – 1991. – Vol. 65, N 246. – P. 22–38.

7. Anthony D.W., Brown D.R. The secondary products revolution, horse-riding and mounted warfare // J. of World Prehistory. – 2011. – Vol. 24, N 2. – P. 131–160.

8. Arbuckle B.S. Zooarchaeology at Kösk Höyük // Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı. – 2007. – Vol. 29, N 2. – P. 124–136.

9. Arbuckle B.S. Chalcolithic caprines, Dark Age dairy, and Byzantine beef: a fi rst look at animal exploitation at Middle and Late Holocene Çadır Höyük, north central turkey // Anatolica. – 2009. – Vol. 35. – P. 179–224.

10. Badjalan R.S., Edens C., Gorny R., Kohl P.L., Stronach D., Tonikjan A.V., Hamayakjan S., Mandrikjan S., Zardarjan M. Preliminary report on the 1992 excavations at Horom, Armenia // Iran. – 1993. – Vol. 31. – P. 1–24.

11. Badjalan R.S., Edens C., Kohl P.L., Tonikjan A.V. Archaeological investigations at Horom in the Shirak Plain of north-western Armenia, 1990 // Iran. – 1992. – Vol. 30. – P. 31–48.

12. Badjalan R.S., Kohl P., Stronach D., Tonikjan A.V. Preliminary report on the 1993 excavations at Horom, Armenia // Iran. – 1994. – Vol. 32. – P. 1–30.

13. Berthon R., Mashkour M. Animal remains from Tilbeşar excavations, southeast Anatolia, Turkey // Anatolia Antiqua. – 2008. – Vol. 16. – P. 23–51.

14. Bökönyi S. Horse remains from the prehistoric site of Surkotada, Kutch, late 3rd millennium B.C. // South Asian Studies. – 1997. – Vol. 13, N 1. – P. 297–307.

15. Brown D.R., Anthony D.W. Bit wear, horseback riding, and the Botai site in Kazakstan // J. of Archaeol. Sci. – 1998. – Vol. 25, N 4. – P. 331–347.

16. Burney C.A., Lang D.M. The peoples of the hills: ancient Ararat and Caucasus. – N. Y.: Praeger, 1971. – 323 p.

17. Carruthers D. Hunting and herding in central Anatolian prehistory: the 9th and 7th millennium site at Pinar-başi // Archaeozoology of the Near East VI: Proc. of the sixth intern. symp. on the archaeozoology of southwestern Asia and adjacent areas. – Groningen, 2004. – P. 85–95. – (Arc Publicaties; vol. 63).

18. Carruthers D. Bone Ref# 116 (Animal Bone) // Pınarbaşı 1994: Animal Bones / ed. D. Carruthers (Released: 2013-03-05); Open Context. – URL: http://opencontext.org/ subjects/TESTPA0000003982 (Viewed 01.05.2014).

19. Clutton-Brock J. The Buhen horse // J. of Archaeol. Science. – 1974. – Vol. 1, N 1. – P. 89–100.

20. Clutton-Brock J., Burleigh R. Notes on the osteology of the Arab Horse with reference to a skeleton collected in Egypt by Sir Flinders Petrie // Bull. of the British Museum of Natural History (Zoology). – 1979. – Vol. 35. – P. 127–200.

21. Cope C.R. The fauna: preliminary results. The Tel Bet Yerah Excavations, 1994–1995 / ed. N. Getzov. – Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority, 2006. – P. 169–174.

22. Davis S. Mammal bones from the Early Bronze Age city of Arad, northern Negev, Israel: some implications concerning human exploitation // J. of Archaeol. Sci. – 1976. – Vol. 3, N 2. – P. 153–164.

23. Davis S.J. Late Pleistocene and Holocene equid remains from Israel // Zool. J. of the Linnean Soc. – 1980. – Vol. 70. – P. 89–312.

24. Driesch A., von den. Faunal remains from Habuba Kabira in Syria // Archaeozoology of the Near East: proc. of the fi rst intern. symp. on the archaeozoology of southwestern Asia and adjacent areas / eds. H. Buitenhuis, A.T. Clayson. – Leiden: Universal Book Services, 1993. – P. 52–59.

25. Edwards Y.H., Martin L. Animal bones and archaeozoological analysis // Wadi Hammeh 27, an early Natufi an settlement at Pella in Jordan / ed. P.C. Edwards. – Boston: Leiden, 2013. – P. 321–352.

26. El-Shiyab A.H. Faunal remains from “Ain Rahub” // The Prehistory of Jordan, II: Perspectives from 1997 / eds. H.G.K. Gebel, Z. Kafafi, G.O. Rollefson. – B.: Ex oriente, 1997. – P. 593–600.

27. Emery W.B. A preliminary report on the excavations of the Egypt Exploration Society at Buhen, 1958–1959 // Kush. – 1960. – Vol. 8. – P. 7–10.

28. Fazeli H., Wong E.H., Potts D.T. The Qazvin Plain revisited: a reappraisal of the chronology of the northwestern Central Plateau, Iran, the 6th to 4th millennium B.C. // Ancient Near Eastern Studies. – 2005. – Vol. 42. – P. 3–82.

29. Gilbert A.S. Urban taphonomy of mammalian remains from Bronze Age of Godin Tepe, western Iran: PhD thesis. Columbia Univ. – Ann Arbor, 1979. – XVII, 448 p.: ill.

30. Gilbert A.S. Equid remains from Godin Tepe, western Iran: an interim summary and interpretation, with notes on the introduction of the horse into Southwest Asia // Equids in the Ancient World / eds. R.H. Meadow, H.P. Uerpmann. – Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verl., 1991. – Vol. 2. – P. 75–122.

31. Golani A. The Early Bronze Age site of Ashqelon, Afridar – Area M // ‘Atiqot. – 2008. – Vol. 60. – P. 19–51.

32. Grigson C. The earliest domestic horses in the Levant? – new fi nds from the fourth millennium of the Negev // J. of Archaeol. Sci. – 1993. – Vol. 20, N 6. – P. 645–655.

33. Hellwing S. Faunal remains // Aphek-Antipatris I: Excavation of Areas A and B, the 1972–1976 Seasons / eds. M. Kochavi, P. Beck, E. Yadin. – Tel Aviv: The Emery and Claire Yass Publ. in Archaeol., 2000. – P. 293–314.

34. Hellwing S., Feig N. Animal bones // Excavations at Tel Michal Israel / eds. Z. Herzog, G.R. Rapp Jr., O. Negbi. – Minneapolis: The Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1989. – P. 236–247.

35. Hellwing S., Sadeh M., Kishon V. Faunal remains // Shiloh, the Archaeology of a Biblical Site / eds. I. Finkelstein, S. Bunimovitz, Z. Lederman. – Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv Univ., 1993. – P. 309–350.

36. Herzog Z., Negbi O., Moshkowitz S. Excavations at Tel Michal, 1977 // J. of Tel Aviv Univ. Inst. of Archaeol. – 1978. – Vol. 5. – P. 99–130.

37. Herzog Z., Rapp G., Jr., Muhly J.D. Introduction // Excavations at Tel Michal, Israel / eds. Z. Herzog, G.R. Rapp Jr., O. Negbi. – Minneapolis: The Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1989. – P. 3–9.

38. Horwitz L.K. Faunal remains from Late Chalcolithic – Bronze Age dwelling and burial caves at Shoham (North), Lod Valley // ‘Atiqot. – 2007. – Vol. 55. – P. 1–16.

39. Horwitz L.K., Rosen S.A., Bocquentin F. A Late Neolithic equid offering from the mortuary-cult site of Ramat Saharonim in the central Negev // J. of the Israel Prehistoric Soc. – 2011. – Vol. 41. – P. 71–81.

40. Ilan D. Household gleanings from Iron I Tel Dan // Household Archaeology in Ancient Israel and Beyond / eds. A. Yasur-Landau, J.R. Ebeling, L.B. Mazow. – Leiden: Brill, 2011. – P. 133–154.

41. Kansa S.W. Animal exploitation at Early Bronze Age Ashqelon, Afridar: what the bones tell us – initial analysis of the animal bones from Areas E, F and G //‘Atiqot. – 2004. – Vol. 45. – P. 279–297.

42. Köhler-Rollefson I. The Animal Bones // Excavations at Tawilan in Southern Jordan / eds. C.M. Bennett, P. Bienkowski. – Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995. – P. 97–100.

43. Kuhrt A. The Ancient Near East: c. 3000–330 BC. – L.: Routledge, 1995. – 782 p.

44. Kuznetsov P.F. The emergence of Bronze Age chariots in eastern Europe // Antiquity. – 2006. – Vol. 80. – P. 638–645.

45. Lernau H. Faunal remains, Strata III–I // Early Arad, the Chalcolithic Settlement and Early Bronze City, I: First–Fifth Seasons of Excavation, 1962–1966 / eds. R. Amiran, U. Paran, Y. Shiloh, R. Brown, Y. Tsafrir, A. Ben-Tor. – Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Soc., 1978. – P. 83–113.

46. Levine M.A. Botai and the origins of horse domestication // J. of Anthropol. Archaeol. – 1999. – Vol. 18, N 1. – P. 29–78. Levy T.E., Alon D., Grigson C., Holl A., Goldberg P., Rowan Y., Smith P. Subterranean Negev settlement // Nat. Geographic Research. – 1991. – November. – P. 394–413.

47. Lev-Tov J.S.E. A preliminary report on the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age faunal assemblages from Tell es-Safi /Gath // Tell es-Safi /Gath I: The 1996–2005 Seasons / ed. A.M. Maeir. – Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verl., 2012. – P. 594–596.

48. Mallory J.P. In search of the Indo-Europeans: language, archaeology and myth. – N. Y.: Thames and Hudson, 1989. – 288 p.

49. Martin L. 11392.X14 (Animal Bone) // Çatalhöyük Zooarchaeology / ed. D. Orton (Released: 2013-02-14); Open Context. – URL: http://opencontext.org/subjects/193552A8-5A02-4A1A-E535-C71F5047B2B1 (Viewed 01.05.2014).

50. Martin L., Russell N., Carruthers D. Animal remains from the Central Anatolian Neolithic // The Neolithic of Central Anatolia: internal developments and external relations during the 9th–6th millennia cal BC / eds. F. Gérard, L. Thissen. – Istanbul: Ege Yayınları, 2002. – P. 193–216.

51. Mashkour M. Equids in the northern part of the Iranian central plateau from the Neolithic to Iron Age: nev zoogeographic evidence // Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse / eds. M. Levine, C. Renfrew, K. Boyle. – Cambridge: McDonald Inst. for Archaeol. Res., 2003. – P. 129–138.

52. McGrew P.O. An early Pleistocene (Blancan) fauna from Nebraska // Field Museum of Natural History Chicago Geological ser. – 1944. – Vol. 9. – P. 33–69.

53. Moortgat A. Tell Chuera in Nordost-Syrien: Bericht über die vierte Grabungskampagne 1963. – Köln, Opladen: Westdeutscher Verl., 1965. – 88 S. – (WAAF; Bd. 31).

54. Nigro L. Khirbet al-Batrawy: an Early Bronze Age city at the fringes of the desert // Syria. – 2013. – Vol. 90. – P. 189–209.

55. Olsen S.L. The exploitation of horses at Botai, Kazakhstan // Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse / eds. M. Levine, C. Renfrew, K. Boyle. – Cambridge: McDonald Inst. for Archaeol. Res., 2003. – P. 83–104.

56. Oren E. Tel Sera’ (Tell esh-Shari’a) // Israel Exploration J. – 1972. – Vol. 22. – P. 167–169.

57. Orlando L., Metcalf J.L., Alberdi M.T., Telles-Antunes M., Bonjean D., Otte M., Martin F., Eisenmann V., Mashkour M., Morello F., Prado J.L., Salas-Gismondi R., Shockey B.J., Wrinn P., Vasil’ev S.K., Ovodov N.D., Cherry M.I., Hopwood B., Male D., Austin J.J., Hänni C., Cooper A. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA // Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci. USA. – 2009. – Vol. 106, N 51. – P. 21754–21759.

58. Outram A.K., Stear N.A., Bendrey R., Olsen S., Kasparov A., Zaibert V., Thorpe N., Evershed R.P. The earliest horse harnessing and milking // Science. – 2009. – Vol. 323. – P. 1332–1335.

59. Öztan A., Özkan S., Erek C.M., Faydali E. Yılı Köşk Höyük kazıları // Kazı Sonuçlari Toplantısi. – 2005. – Vol. 27. – P. 379–392.

60. Porat N., Rosen S.A., Boaretta E., Avini Y. Dating the Ramat Saharonim Late Neolithic desert cult site // J. of Archaeol. Sci. – 2006. – Vol. 33, N 10. – P. 1341–1355.

61. Postgate J.N. Early Mesopotamia: society and economy at the dawn of history. – Oxon: Routledge, 1992. – 367 p.

62. Richardson J.E. An analysis of the faunal assemblages from two Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites in the Wadi Fidan // The Prehistory of Jordan, II: Perspectives from 1997 / eds. H.G.K. Gebel, Z. Kafafi, G.O. Rollefson. – B.: Ex oriente, 1997. – P. 497–510.

63. Rosen S.A., Bocquentin F., Avni Y., Porat N. Investigations at Ramat Saharonim: a desert Neolithic sacred precint in the Central Negev // Bull. of the Amer. Soc. for Oriental Res. – 2007. – Vol. 346. – P. 1–27.

64. Sagona A. Anatolia and the Transcaucasus: themes and variations ca. 6400–1500 B.C.E. // The Oxford Handb. of Ancient Anatolia / eds. S.R. Steadmean, G. McMahon. – Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2011. – P. 683–703.

65. Steadman S.R., Ross J.C., McMahon G., Gorny R.L. Excavations on the north-central plateau: the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age occupation at Çadir Höyük // Anatolian Studies. – 2008. – Vol. 58. – P. 47–86.

66. Stiner M.C. The faunas of Hayonim Cave, Israel: a 200 000-year record of Paleolithic diet, demography and society. – Cambridge: Harvard Univ., Peabody Museum Press, 2005. – 368 p. – (Am. School of Prehistoric Res. Bull.; N 48).

67. Twiss K., Martin L., Pawlowska K., Russell N. Animal bone // Çatalhöyük 2005 Archive Report: Çatalhöyük Research Project. – P. 120–130. – URL: http://www.catalhoyuk.com/ archive_reports/2005/ar05_21.html (Viewed 22.09.2013).

68. Vila E. Data on Equids from late fouth and third millennium sites in Northern Syria // Equids in time and space: Papers in honour of Véra Eisenmann / ed. M. Mashkour. – Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006. – P. 101–123.

69. Young T.C. Excavations at Godin Tepe: first progress report. – Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1969. – 145 p. – (Art and Archaeology Occasional Paper; N 17).


Для цитирования:


Шев Ю.Т. ДОМЕСТИКАЦИЯ ЛОШАДИ В ЮГО-ЗАПАДНОЙ АЗИИ. Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии. 2016;44(1):123-136.

For citation:


Shev E.T. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE DOMESTICATED HORSE IN SOUTHWEST ASIA. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2016;44(1):123-136. (In Russ.)

Просмотров: 261


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1563-0110 (Print)