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Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии

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Анализ стабильных изотопов: основы метода и обзор исследований в Сибири и Евразийской степи

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Аннотация

Анализ стабильных изотопов азота и углерода – один из современных методов изучения различных аспектов жизни древних популяций, включая диету и экономику. В статье изложены методические основы анализа, а также дан обзор палеодиетарных исследований с его применением в Сибири и Евразийской степи по состоянию на конец 2013 г. По имеющимся данным, диета различных популяций энеолита – раннего железного века на этой территории менялась как во времени, так и в пространстве, но всегда включала достаточно большое количество рыбы. Различия в диете (и, соответственно, в хозяйственном укладе) между разными группами носителей одной и той же культуры были связаны с их попытками адаптироваться к конкретным условиям окружающей среды. Отмечено сильное влияние климатических факторов (изменения влажности) на изотопные показатели. Просо появилось лишь в XIV в. до н.э. в Минусинской котловине; таким образом, Южная Сибирь, поидимому, стала одним из первых центров его распространения в Сибирском регионе. Несмотря на относительно большое количество работ, палеодиетарные исследования с применением изотопного анализа в Сибири и Евразийской степи находятся на этапе накопления данных. Одним из важнейших критериев этих исследований является систематический подход, включающий изотопный анализ костных остатков не только людей, но и всех потенциальных составляющих диеты – наземных и водных животных, а также образцов растений (т.н. фоновых образцов).

Об авторе

С. В. Святко
Центр по изучению климата, окружающей среды и хронологии (14CHRONO) Королевского университета Белфаста, Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии 14CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment, and Chronology, Queen’s University Belfast Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
Россия


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Для цитирования:


Святко С.В. Анализ стабильных изотопов: основы метода и обзор исследований в Сибири и Евразийской степи. Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии. 2016;44(2):47-55.

For citation:


Svyatko S.V. Stable Isotope Analysis: Outline of Methodology, and a Review of Studies in Siberia and the Eurasian Steppe. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2016;44(2):47-55. (In Russ.)

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