Preview

Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia

Advanced search

Above-Ground Frame Buildings in Western Siberia: Archaeological and Ethnographic Parallels

https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2016.44.3.063-071

Full Text:

Abstract

The study examines above-ground frame buildings and their numerous parallels in various cultures. In Western Siberia, these structures occur throughout an area from the forest-steppe to the northern taiga and over a time span from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages. They were especially popular during the Bronze to Iron Age transition. On settlements, remains of these buildings usually look like oval or rounded areas raised above the ground and surrounded by shallow pits or grooves and sometimes by low earthen curbs. Recent ethnographic studies among the Selkups of the Upper Taz, Krasnoselkupsky District, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District, demonstrate that natives of the northern taiga have been using such constructions until the present time. These frame dwellings, shaped like truncated pyramids, had no foundation pits and were covered with sand and turf. They were called poy-mat, which means “wooden house” in Selkup. Poy-mat was a seasonal dwelling which, in the 20th century, was used by hunters and poor reindeer herders in winter. Our fi ndings reveal parallels between Selkup and archaeological dwellings and allow us to reconstruct the appearance of ancient buildings, their construction, materials, and usage. We show that this type of buildings had several adaptive advantages, which contributed to its viability over centuries.

About the Authors

V. N. Adayev
Institute of Northern Development, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, POB 2774, Tyumen, 625003, Russia
Russian Federation


O. Y. Zimina
Institute of Northern Development, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, POB 2774, Tyumen, 625003, Russia
Russian Federation


References

1. Adamov A.A. 2000 Novosibirskoye Priobye v X–XIV vv. Tobolsk, Omsk: Izd. Omsk. Gos. Ped. Univ.

2. Baraba v tyurkskoye vremya. 1988 V.I. Molodin, D.G. Savinov, V.S. Elagin, V.I. Sobolev, N.V. Polosmak, E.A. Sidorov, V.A. Soloviev, A.P. Borodovsky, A.V. Novikov, A.R. Kim, T.A. Chikisheva, P.I. Belanov. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

3. Chemyakin Y.P., Karacharov K.G. 2002 Drevnyaya istoriya Surgutskogo Priobya. In Ocherki istorii traditsionnogo zemlepolzovaniya khantov (materialy k atlasu). Yekaterinburg: Tezis, pp. 7–74.

4. Chemyakin Y.P., Zykov A.P. 2004 Barsova gora: Arkheologicheskaya karta. Surgut, Omsk: Izd. Omsk. Gos. Ped. Univ.

5. Irikov S.I. 2002 Zhilishche. In Khomich L.V., Irikov S.I., Ayupova G.E. Tazovskiye selkupy: Ocherki traditsionnoi kultury. St. Petersburg: Prosveshcheniye, pp. 72–80.

6. Istoriya Yamala. 2010 In 2 vols. Vol. 1: Yamal traditsionnyi. Bk. 1: Drevniye kultury i korennye narody. Yekaterinburg: Basko.

7. Kenig A.V. 2001 Etnoarkheologicheskaya model sezonnosti selkupskikh stoibishch (nakopleniye i obrazovaniye kulturnogo sloya). In Integratsiya arkheologicheskikh i etnograficheskikh issledovaniy. Nalchik, Omsk: Izd. Omsk. Gos. Ped. Univ., pp. 60–62.

8. Kenig A.V. 2010 Etnoarkheologiya kak metod arkheologicheskikh rekonstruktsiy (na primere tazovskikh selkupov). Yekaterinburg, Khanty-Mansiysk: Izd. AMB.

9. Kosinskaya L.L., Fedorova N.V. 1994 Arkheologicheskaya karta Yamalo-Nenetskogo avtonomnogo okruga. Preprint. Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN.

10. Lezova S.V. 1991 Zhilishche severnykh selkupov. In Eksperimentalnaya arkheologiya, iss. 1. Tobolsk: Tobolsk. Gos. Ped. Inst., pp. 101–107.

11. Mikhalev V.V. 2008 Gorodishcha s koltsevoi sistemoi oborony v Srednem Priirtyshye (predvaritelnoye soobshcheniye). In VII istoricheskiye chteniya pamyati M.P. Gryaznova. Omsk: Izd. Omsk. Gos. Ped. Univ., pp. 223–224.

12. Mikhalev V.V., Korusenko M.A. 2007 Domostroitelnye traditsii naseleniya Nizhnego Pritarya v epokhu srednevekovya (k voprosu o sezonnykh poseleniyakh). In Integratsiya arkheologicheskikh i etnograficheskikh issledovaniy. Odessa, Omsk: Izd. Omsk. Gos. Ped. Univ., pp. 310–313.

13. Ocherki kulturogeneza narodov Zapadnoi Sibiri. 1994 Vol. 1: Poseleniya i zhilishcha. Bk. 1. Tomsk: Izd. Tomsk. Gos. Univ.

14. Sokolova Z.P. 1998 Zhilishche narodov Sibiri (opyt tipologii). Moscow: TriL.

15. Tsembalyuk S.I., Ilyushina V.V., Ryabogina N.E., Ivanov S.N. 2011 Kompleksnoye issledovaniye baitovskogo gorodishcha Borovushka 2 (lesostepnoye Pritobolye). Vestnik arkheologii, antropologii i etnografi i, No. 2: 98−107.

16. Zakh V.A., Fomina E.A. 1999 K voprosu o proiskhozhdenii andreyevskoi kultury. Vestnik arkheologii, antropologii i etnografi i, No. 2: 14–21.

17. Zakh V.A., Usacheva I.V., Zimina O.Y., Skochina S.N., Chikunova I.Y. 2014 Drevnosti Andreyevskoi ozernoi sistemy. Vol. 1: Arkheologicheskiye pamyatniki. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

18. Zimina O.Y., Zakh V.A. 2009 Nizhneye Pritobolye na rubezhe bronzovogo i zheleznogo vekov. Novosibirsk: Nauka.


For citation:


Adayev V.N., Zimina O.Y. Above-Ground Frame Buildings in Western Siberia: Archaeological and Ethnographic Parallels. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2016;44(3):63-71. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2016.44.3.063-071

Views: 188


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1563-0110 (Print)