РАЗЛИЧИЯ В МЕХАНИЗМАХ ПЕРЕХОДА К ЗЕМЛЕДЕЛИЮ В ЛЕСНОЙ ЗОНЕ ЕВРОПЫ И СЕВЕРНОЙ АМЕРИКИ

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Аннотация

Несмотря на сходные природные условия лесной зоны, возникновение и распространение производящего хозяйства в восточной части Северной Америки и Европе происходили по-разному. Для объяснения различий в сроках, скорости и механизмах перехода в работе используется моделирующая система мирового землепользования и технологической эволюции – численная модель для моделирования демографии, инноваций, доместикации, миграций и торговли в геоэкологическом контексте. Показано, что европейское население получило комплекс окультуренных видов растений и животных с других территорий и быстро перешло к производящему хозяйству. В отличие от Европы, в восточной части Северной Америки охота–собирательство и земледелие–скотоводство сосуществовали в течение длительного времени, а земледелие мед-ленно интегрировалось в уже существующую систему жизнеобеспечения. Из этого делается вывод о качественном экономическом различии в переходе к земледелию в данных регионах: ограниченных людских ресурсах в Европе и ограниченных природных ресурсах в восточной части Северной Америки.


Об авторе

К. Леммен
Центр Гельмгольца в Геестхахте – Центр изучения материалов и исследования побережья, Германия Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht – Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung Max-Planck-Straße 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
Германия

доктор наук, старший научный сотрудник



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Для цитирования: Леммен К. РАЗЛИЧИЯ В МЕХАНИЗМАХ ПЕРЕХОДА К ЗЕМЛЕДЕЛИЮ В ЛЕСНОЙ ЗОНЕ ЕВРОПЫ И СЕВЕРНОЙ АМЕРИКИ. Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии. 2013;55(3):48-58.

For citation: Lemmen C. MECHANISMS SHAPING THE TRANSITION TO FARMING IN EUROPE AND THE NORTH AMERICAN WOODLAND. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2013;55(3):48-58. (In Russ.)

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