Preview

Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia

Advanced search

THE DISCOVERY OF A BIFACIAL INDUSTRY IN VIETNAM

https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2018.46.3.003-021

Full Text:

Abstract

This study deals with the origin of bifacial industry in the Lower Paleolithic of Southeast Asia. We describe stone tools from the stratifi ed sites of Goda and Rocktyng near the town of Ankhe, Vietnam. The lithics represent a homogeneous industry characterized by uniform Lower Paleolithic techniques of primary and secondary reduction. Cores and tools were made of pebbles, and some tools were manufactured on fl akes. The tool-kit includes bifaces, pics, becs, carinate end-scrapers, various types of side-scrapers, choppers and chopping tools, denticulate and notched pieces. Bifaces and pics are the principal types. Primary reduction was aimed at manufacturing simple pebble cores with cortex striking platforms, whereas radial and orthogonal cores are less frequent. Tektites found with the lithics were dated by 40K/38Ar-method to 806±22 and 782±20 ka BP. We propose to name this industry the Ankhe culture. It likely emerged by convergent evolution of the pebble-fl ake industry associated with the fi rst wave of Homo erectus migration from Africa 1.8–1.6 million years BP, and is unrelated to the Acheulean tradition introduced by the second migration wave from Africa.

About the Authors

A. P. Derevianko
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090


A. V. Kandyba
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090


Khac Su Nguyen
Institute of Archaeology, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
Viet Nam
Phan Chu Chin 61, Hanoi


S. A. Gladyshev
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090


Gia Doi Nguyen
Institute of Archaeology, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
Viet Nam
Phan Chu Chin 61, Hanoi


V. A. Lebedev
Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Staromonetny per. 35, bldg. 2, Moscow, 119017


A. M. Chekha
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090


A. G. Rybalko
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090


V. M. Kharevich
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090


A. A. Tsybankov
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation
Pr. Akademika Lavrentieva 17, Novosibirsk, 630090


References

1. Амирханов Х.А. Каменный век Южной Аравии. – М.: Наука, 2006. – 693 с.

2. Борисковский П.И. Первобытное прошлое Вьетнама. – М.; Л: Наука, 1966. – 184 с.

3. Борисковский П.И. Древний каменный век Южной и Юго-Восточной Азии. – Л.: Наука, 1971. – 173 с.

4. Деревянко А.П. Проблема бифасиальной техники в Китае // Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии. – 2008. – № 1. – С. 2–32.

5. Деревянко А.П. Бифасиальная индустрия в Восточной и Юго-Восточной Азии. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2014. – 372 с.

6. Деревянко А.П. Три глобальные миграции человека в Евразии. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2015. – Т. 1: Происхождение человека и заселение им Юго-Западной, Южной, Восточной, Юго-Восточной Азии и Кавказа. – 612 с.

7. Деревянко А.П. Три глобальные миграции человека в Евразии. Распространение ашельской индустрии в Евразии (в печати). Деревянко А.П., Гладышев С.А., Нгуен Зианг Хай, Нгуен За Дой, Нгуен Кхак Шу, Кандыба А.В., Чеха А.М., Цыбанков А.А., Нгуен Ань Тоан, Фань Тхан Туан. Раскопки стоянки раннего палеолита с бифасиальной индустрией Роктынг 4 во Вьетнаме в 2017 году // Проблемы археологии, этнографии, антропологии Сибири и сопредельных территорий. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2017а. – Т. XXIII. – С. 79–83.

8. Деревянко А.П., Гладышев С.А., Нгуен Зианг Хай, Нгуен За Дой, Нгуен Кхак Шу, Кандыба А.В., Чеха А.М., Цыбанков А.А., Нгуен Ань Тоан, Фань Тхан Туан. Новые данные в изучении раннего палеолита с бифасиальной индустрией Вьетнама. Раскопки стоянки Роктынг 7 в 2017 году // Проблемы археологии, этнографии, антропологии Сибири и сопредельных территорий. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2017б. – Т. XXIII. – С. 84–88.

9. Деревянко А.П., Петрин В.Т., Гладышев С.А., Зенин А.Н., Таймагамбетов Ж.К. Ашельские комплексы Мугоджарских гор (Северо-Западная Азия) // Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии. – 2001. – № 2. – С. 20–36.

10. Деревянко А.П., Цыбанков А.А., Нгуен Зианг Хай, Нгуен За Дой, Нгуен Кхак Шу, Кандыба А.В., Гладышев С.А., Чеха А.М., Нгуен Ань Тоан, Фань Тхан Туан. Предварительные итоги раскопок местонахождений Роктынг 1 и Роктынг 4 во Вьетнаме // Проблемы археологии, этнографии, антропологии Сибири и сопредельных территорий. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2016. – Т. XXII. – С. 63–67.

11. Деревянко А.П., Шу Н.Х., Цыбанков А.А., Дой Н.З. Возникновение бифасиальной индустрии в Восточной и Юго-Восточной Азии. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2016. – 74 с.

12. Деревянко А.П., Шуньков М.В., Болиховская Н.С., Зыкин В.С., Зыкина В.С., Кулик Н.А., Ульянов В.А., Чиркин К.А. Стоянка раннего палеолита Карама на Алтае. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2005. – 88 с. Любин В.П., Беляева Е.В. Нуклевидные скребки раннего палеолита // Археология и палеоэкология Евразии. – Новосибирск: Изд-во ИАЭТ СО РАН, 2004. – С. 159–164.

13. Се Гуанмао. К вопросу о рубилах Байсэ // Жэньлэйсюэ сюэбао. – 2002. – № 21. – С. 65–73 (на кит. яз.).

14. Се Гуанмао, Ли Цян, Хуан Цишань. Палеолитическая индустрия байсэ (Байсэ цзюшици). – Пекин: Вэньу чубаньшэ, 2003. – 180 с. (на кит. яз.).

15. Хуан Вэйвэнь, Хоу Ямэй, Сон Хёнгён. Галечные орудия в палеолите Китая // Археология, этнография и антропология Евразии. – 2005. – № 1. – С. 2–15.

16. Bar-Yosef O., Goren-Inbar N. The Lithic Assemblages of ‘Ubeidiya: A Lower Palaeolithic Site in the Jordan Valley. – Erusalem: Hebrew Univ., 1993. – 280 p. – (Qedem – Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; vol. 34).

17. Biglari F., Heydari S., Shidrang S. Ganj Par: The First Evidence for Lower Paleolithic Occupation in the Southern Caspian Basin, Iran // Antiquity. – 2004. – Vol. 78, N 302. – P. 1–3.

18. Biglari F., Nokandeh G., Heydari S. A recent fi nd of a possible Lower Paleolithic assemblage from the foothills of the Zagros Mountains // Antiquity. – 2000. – Vol. 74. – P. 749–750.

19. Biglari F., Shidrang S. The Lower Paleolithic Occupation of Iran // Near Eastern Archaeol. – 2006. – Vol. 69, N 3/4. – P. 160–168.

20. Ciochon R.L., Olsen J.W. Paleoanthropological and archaeological research in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam // J. of Human Evol. – 1986. – Vol. 15. – P. 623–631.

21. Clark J.D. The Early Palaeolithic of the eastern region of the Old World in comparison to the West // Early Human Behavior in Global Context: The Rise and Diversity of the Lower Palaeolithic Record. – L.: Routledge, 1998. – P. 437–450.

22. Clark J.D., Kleindienst M.R. The Stone Age cultural sequence: Terminology, typology and raw material // Kalambo Falls Prehistoric Site / ed. J.D. Clark. – L.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1974. – Vol. 2. – P. 71–106.

23. Colani M. L´age de la pierre dans la province de Hoa-Binh // Memoires du Service Geologique de L´Indochine. – Hanoi, 1927. – Vol. XIV, fasc. I. – 16 p.

24. Davidson I., Noble W. Why the fi rst colonization of the Australian region is the earliest evidence of modern human behavior // Archaeol. Ocean. – 1992. – Vol. 27. – P. 135–142.

25. Dennell R.W. The Paleolithic Settlement of Asia. – Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. – 548 p.

26. Gaillard C., Mishra S., Singh M., Deo S., Abbas R. Lower and Early Middle Pleistocene Acheulian in the Indian subcontinent // Quaternary Intern. – 2009. – Vol. 30. – P. 1–8.

27. Goren-Inbar N. The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov: An African or Asian entity? // The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia. – Tokyo: Hokusen-sha, 1992. – P. 67–82.

28. Goren-Inbar N. Culture and cognition in the Acheulian industry – a case study from Gesher Benot Ya`aqov // Phil. Trans. R. Soc. – 2011. – Vol. 366 (1567). – P. 1038–1049.

29. Goren-Inbar N., Feibel C.S., Verosub K.L., Melamed Y., Kislev M.E., Tchernov E., Saragusti I. Pleistocene milestones on the out-of-Africa corridor at Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel // Science. – 2000. – Vol. 289. – P. 944–947.

30. Goren-Inbar N., Grosman L., Sharon G. The technology and signifi cance of the Acheulian giant cores of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel // J. of Archaeol. Sci. – 2011. – Vol. 38, iss. 8. – P. 1901–1917.

31. Goren-Inbar N., Sharon G. Invisible handaxes and visible Acheulian biface technology at Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel // Axe Age: Acheulian Tool-making from Quarry to Discard. – L.: Equinox, 2006. – P. 111–135.

32. Hou Yamei, Potts R., Yuan Baoyin, Guo Zhengtang, Deino A., Wang Wei, Clark J., Xie Guangmao, Huang Weiwen. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like Stone Technology of the Bose Basin, South China // Science. – 2000. – Vol. 287, iss. 5458. – P. 1622–1626.

33. Hutterer K.I. The Pleistocene archaeology of Southern Asia in regional context // Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asian. – 1985. – Vol. 9. – P. 1–25.

34. Kahlke Н.D. Neue Funde von Urmenschen-Resten in Ostasien // Natur und Museum. – 1965. – Bd. 93 (3). – S. 109–115.

35. Kahlke H.D. A review of the Pleistocene history of the Orangutan (Pongo Lacepede 1799) // Asian Perspectives. – 1973. – Vol. 1. – P. 5–14.

36. Koeberl C., Glass B.P., Keates S.G., Potts R., Huang Weiwen, Hou Yamei, Deino A., Yuan Baoyin, Guo Zhengtang, Clark J. Tektites and the Age Paradox in Mid-Pleistocene China // Sci. – 2000. – Vol. 289. – P. 506–507.

37. Leakey M.D. Olduvai Gorge: Excavations in Beds I and II – 1960–1963. – Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1971. – Vol. 3. – 306 p.

38. Le site de L`home de Yunxian. Quyuanhekou, Quingqu, Yunxian, Province du Hubei. – P.: CNRS, 2008. – 587 p.

39. Lycett S.J. Why is there a lack of Mode 3 Levallois technologies in East Asia? A phylogenetic test of the Movius– Schick hypothesis // J. of Anthropological Archaeol. – 2007. – Vol. 26 (4). – P. 541–575.

40. Marwick B. Biogeography of Middle Pleistocene hominins in mainland Southeast Asia: A review of current evidence // Quaternary Intern. – 2009. – Vol. 202. – P. 51–58.

41. Mishra S., Venkatesan T.R., Rajagurus S.N., Somayajulu H. Earliest Acheulian industry from Peninsular India // Current Anthropol. – 1995. – Vol. 36, N 5. – P. 847–852.

42. Movius H.L. Early Man and Pleistocene Stratigraphy in Southern and Eastern Asia // Papers of the Peabody Museum of Am. Archaeol. and Ethnol. – 1944. – Vol. 19, N 3. – P. 389–399.

43. Movius H.L. The Lower Paleolithic Cultures of Southern and Eastern Asia // Tran. Amer. Phil. Soc. New Ser. – 1949. – Vol. 38 (4). – P. 329–420.

44. Movius H.L. New Paleolithic sites, near Ting-T`sun in the Fen River, Shansi province, North China // Quaternaria. – 1956. – Vol. 3. – P. 13–26.

45. Movius H.L. Southern and Eastern Asia: Conclusions / ed. F. Ikawa-Smith // Early Paleolithic in South and East Asia. – The Hague: Mouton, 1958. – P. 351–355.

46. Nguyễn Khắc Sử. Khảo cổ học Tiền sử Tây Nguyên. – Hà Nội: Giáo dục, 2007a. Nguyễn Khắc Sử. Stone Age Archaeology in Vietnam // Vietnam Archaeol. – 2007b. – Vol. 2. – P. 53–64.

47. Nguyễn Khắc Sử, Nguyễn Gia Doi. System of the Paleolithic Locations in the Upper Ba River // J. of Vietnam Acad. of Soc. Sci. – 2015. – Vol. 4 (168). – P. 47–63.

48. Olsen J.W., Ciochon R.L. A review of evidence for postulated Middle Pleistocene occupations in Vietnam // J. of Human Evol. – 1990. – Vol. 19. – P. 761–788.

49. Paddayya K. The Acheulian culture project of the Hunsgi and Baichbal Valleys, peninsular India // Human Roots: Africa and Asia in the Middle Pleistocene. – Bristol: Western Acad. Press, 2001. – P. 235–258.

50. Paddayya K., Jhaldiyal R., Petraglia M.D. The Acheulian quarry at Isampur, Lower Decan. – L.: Oakville, 2006. – P. 45–73.

51. Pappu Sh., Akhilesh K. Preliminary observations on the Acheulian assemblages from Attirampakkam, Tamil Nadu // Axe Age, Acheulian Tool-Making from Quarry to Discard / eds. N. Goren-Inbar, G. Sharon. – L.: Oakville, 2006. – P.155–180.

52. Pappu Sh., Gunnell Y., Akhilesh K., Braucher R., Taieb M., Demory F., Nhouveny N. Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India // Science. – 2011. – Vol. 331. – P. 596–599.

53. Petraglia M.D. The Lower Paleolithic of the Arabian Peninsula occupations, adaptations, and dispersals // J. of World Prehistory. – 2003. – Vol. 17. – P. 141–179.

54. Pope G.G. The antiquity and paleoenvironment of the Asian Hominidae // The Evolution of the Asian Environment. – 1984. – Vol. II. – P. 822–847.

55. Pope G.G. Evidence of early Pleistocene hominid activity from Lampang, Northern Thailand // Bull. of the Indo-Pacifi c Prehistory Assoc. – 1985. – P. 2–9.

56. Pope G.G. Recent advances in Far Eastern paleoanthropology // Annu. Rev. of Anthropol. – 1988.– Vol. 17. – P. 43–77

57. Pope G.G., Cronin J.E. The Asian Hominidae // J. of Human Evol. – 1984. – Vol. 13 (5). – P. 377–398.

58. Yi Seonbok, Clark G. Observations on the Lower Paleolithic of Northeast Asia // Current Anthropol. – 1983. – Vol. 24, N 2. – P. 181–202.


For citation:


Derevianko A.P., Kandyba A.V., Nguyen K., Gladyshev S.A., Nguyen G., Lebedev V.A., Chekha A.M., Rybalko A.G., Kharevich V.M., Tsybankov A.A. THE DISCOVERY OF A BIFACIAL INDUSTRY IN VIETNAM. Archaeology, Ethnology & Anthropology of Eurasia. 2018;46(3):3-21. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2018.46.3.003-021

Views: 193


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1563-0110 (Print)